Risk Management

How Do Country Risks Affect Insurance And Risk Management?

Liga Asuransi – Dear readers, how are you? I hope your business is running well as expected.

As you may know, Indonesia is now in the year of politics as the country is preparing for the general election of parliament and presidential. The election will occur earlier in 2024, but the tension of political movements between parties and presidential candidates starts sparking.

As a senior insurance broker, I need to share with my clients and friends so they can take the same necessary actions to protect their business, including political risks insurance. Or to ensure that the insurance includes the coverage of Riot, Strike Malicious Damage, or other similar insurance conditions.

If you are interested in this article, please share it with your friends so they can understand as you do.


Country risk refers to the possibility of financial, political, and economic risks arising from investing or conducting business in a particular country. These risks may include political instability, government policy or regulation changes, civil unrest, terrorism, natural disasters, exchange rate fluctuations, inflation, and other economic factors that could negatively affect an investor’s returns or a business’s operations.

Country risk assessment typically considers various factors, including political stability, economic strength, legal and regulatory environment, infrastructure, and social conditions. Investors and businesses use country risk analysis to evaluate the risks and rewards of investing or operating in a particular country and make informed decisions about where to allocate their resources.



Country risk information is essential for investors and businesses because it allows them to evaluate the risks and rewards of investing or operating in a particular country. By assessing the economic, political, and social factors that could impact their operations, investors and businesses can make informed decisions about where to allocate their resources.

For example, country risk information can help investors and businesses identify potential barriers to entry, such as restrictive regulations or limited access to financing. It can also help them evaluate the stability of a country’s economy and the potential for currency fluctuations, which can impact the value of their investments.

Moreover, country risk information can also help investors and businesses identify potential opportunities for growth and expansion, such as emerging markets or industries. By understanding the risks and opportunities of different countries, investors and businesses can develop strategies to maximize their returns and minimize their exposure to potential risks.



Evaluating the country risks of a country typically involves conducting a thorough analysis of various factors that could impact investment or business operations in that country. Here are some of the critical factors to consider when evaluating country risks:

  • Political risk

This includes the stability of the government and the likelihood of political unrest or instability. It also includes the government’s stance on foreign investment, regulations, and policies that may impact businesses.

  • Economic risk

This includes the economy’s overall health, inflation rates, exchange rate stability, the strength of the banking system, and the level of economic diversification.

  • Social risk

This includes labor conditions, education levels, income inequality, and social unrest.

  • Legal risk

This includes the strength of the legal system, intellectual property protection, and contract enforcement.

  • Environmental risk

This includes the impact of climate change and natural disasters on the country’s infrastructure, agriculture, and other industries.

  • Technological risk

This includes the country’s level of technological development and innovation and cybersecurity risks.

To evaluate country risks, investors and businesses can use various tools, such as country risk ratings from reputable agencies or consulting firms, news sources, and reports from industry associations. Conducting ongoing monitoring of country risks is important, as they can change quickly in response to economic, political, or social events.



Investors and businesses use several key indicators and ratios to assess a country’s risk. These include:

  • Sovereign credit ratings

These are ratings assigned by credit rating agencies that assess a country’s ability to repay its debts. The ratings are based on economic growth, political stability, and fiscal policies. Lower ratings indicate a higher risk of default.

  • Political stability index

This index measures the likelihood of political instability or unrest in a country. It is based on government stability, election results, and armed conflict.

  • Economic indicators

These include GDP growth, inflation, unemployment, and debt-to-GDP ratios. Higher inflation rates and debt-to-GDP ratios can indicate a higher risk of economic instability.

  • Foreign exchange reserves

This indicates a country’s ability to manage its currency exchange rates and pay off foreign debt. A lower level of foreign exchange reserves can indicate a higher currency volatility risk.

  • Corruption perception index

This index measures a country’s perceived level of corruption. Higher levels of corruption can indicate a higher risk of regulatory and legal risks.

  • Ease of doing business index

This index measures the ease of starting and operating a business in a country. A lower ranking can indicate a higher risk of regulatory and bureaucratic obstacles.

These indicators and ratios can be used together to assess a country’s risk comprehensively. However, it is essential to consider them in the context of the specific industry or sector of interest and other country-specific factors.



Providing an exhaustive list of country risks worldwide is difficult, as risks can vary greatly depending on a country’s political, economic, and social conditions. 

Some countries may face multiple risks, while others may be relatively stable. Investors and businesses must conduct a thorough country risk analysis before investing or conducting business operations.

However, here are some common country risks that investors and businesses often consider:

  • Political instability

This includes factors such as civil unrest, political protests, government corruption, and the risk of regime change.

  • Economic volatility

This includes inflation, exchange rate fluctuations, government debt, and weak fiscal policies.

  • Regulatory and legal risks

This includes changes in laws and regulations, intellectual property protection, and the strength of the legal system.

  • Terrorism and security risks

 include terrorist attacks, social unrest, and conflict.

  • Environmental risks

This includes natural disasters, climate change, and environmental regulations.

  • Social risks

This includes labor conditions, social unrest, and income inequality.



Political risk is one of the most significant factors impacting a country’s overall risk profile. Political instability or uncertainty can lead to various risks, including economic volatility, regulatory and legal risks, and security risks. Political risk can arise from various factors, such as changes in government policies, social unrest, civil conflicts, or geopolitical tensions.

Investors and businesses may face a range of political risks when operating in a foreign country, such as:

  • Government instability

This includes the risk of regime change, political unrest, or civil conflict, which can impact the stability of the business environment.

  • Regulatory changes

This includes changes to laws and regulations that can impact a company’s operations, such as tax, environmental, or labor laws.

  • Nationalization

This includes the risk of government expropriation of a company’s assets or nationalizing an industry.

  • Corruption

This includes the risk of bribery, extortion, or other forms of corruption, which can lead to regulatory and legal risks.

  • Security risks

This includes the risk of terrorism, social unrest, or crime, which can impact a company’s operations or the safety of its employees.

The impact of political risk on a country’s overall risk profile can vary depending on the specific situation and the nature of the business or investment. In general, however, political risk is a key factor that investors and companies must consider when evaluating country risks.



The country risk level of Indonesia can be analyzed by considering various economic, political, and social factors. Here are some key factors that impact Indonesia’s country risk level:

  • Economic factors

Indonesia is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and has experienced steady economic growth in recent years. However, the economy heavily depends on exports, which global economic conditions can impact. In addition, Indonesia faces challenges related to infrastructure development, income inequality, and a relatively low level of technological innovation.

  • Political factors

Indonesia is a democratic country with a stable government, but it faces challenges related to corruption and weak rule of law. The country has a history of political instability and religious tensions, and ongoing concerns related to protecting human rights.

  • Social factors

Indonesia has a large and diverse population with various ethnic and religious groups. The country faces challenges related to poverty, inequality, and access to education and healthcare. In addition, there are concerns related to environmental issues, such as deforestation, pollution, and natural disasters.

These factors make Indonesia’s country risk level generally considered moderate to high. Some specific risks investors and businesses may face in Indonesia include regulatory and legal risks related to corruption, political instability, and the potential for natural disasters. 

However, there are also opportunities for investment and growth in infrastructure, healthcare, and consumer goods. As with any investment, it is essential to conduct thorough due diligence and risk analysis before making any decisions.



Compared to these other ASEAN countries, Indonesia has a moderate to high country risk level, similar to Thailand and the Philippines. While Indonesia has a stable political environment and a growing economy, the country faces challenges related to corruption, social inequality, and environmental risks. 

However, Indonesia also has significant opportunities for investment and growth, particularly in infrastructure, healthcare, and consumer goods.

  • Singapore

Singapore is generally considered to have a low country risk level thanks to its stable political environment, strong economy, and favorable business climate. Singapore has a well-developed legal system, low levels of corruption, and a highly skilled workforce. However, the country relies heavily on exports and faces challenges related to high living costs and limited land availability.

  • Malaysia

Malaysia is considered to have a moderate country risk level. The country has a diverse economy, a relatively stable political environment, and a well-developed infrastructure. However, Malaysia faces challenges related to corruption, income inequality, and restrictions on free speech and the media.

  • Thailand

Thailand is considered to have a moderate to high country risk level. The country has a diverse economy and a strong tourism industry but faces challenges related to political instability, corruption, and a weak rule of law. Thailand also has a history of social unrest and military coups.

  • Philippines

The Philippines is considered to have a moderate to high country risk level. The country has a young and growing population, a rapidly developing economy, and a stable political environment. However, the Philippines faces corruption, poor infrastructure, and social inequality challenges. The country is also vulnerable to natural disasters like typhoons and earthquakes.


  • Vietnam

Vietnam is considered to have a moderate country risk level. The country has a large and growing economy, a young and educated workforce, and a stable political environment. However, Vietnam faces challenges related to corruption, weak property rights, and restrictions on political freedoms. The country is also vulnerable to natural disasters and environmental risks.



Understanding the country’s risks is critical for insurance brokers to provide appropriate insurance coverage and risk management services and comply with regulations. By comprehensively understanding the risks, insurance brokers can better serve their clients and help them navigate the complexities of doing business in a particular country.

Insurance brokers must understand the country’s risks to provide their clients with appropriate insurance coverage and risk management services. Here are some reasons why insurance brokers need to understand country risks:


Insurance brokers must assess the risk of insuring businesses and individuals in a particular country. This requires an understanding of the country’s political and economic conditions and its legal and regulatory framework. Insurance brokers can provide accurate risk assessments and appropriate coverage for their clients by understanding these risks.

Risk management

Insurance brokers also play a crucial role in helping clients manage their risks. By understanding the country’s risks, insurance brokers can advise clients on risk mitigation strategies, such as diversifying their investments or implementing security measures to protect their assets. This can help clients reduce their risk exposure and prevent losses.


Insurance brokers must also comply with local regulations and laws when providing insurance services in a particular country. By understanding the regulatory framework and legal environment, insurance brokers can ensure that they operate within the law and avoid potential legal and financial penalties.

Market research

Insurance brokers must also conduct market research to identify potential opportunities and risks in a particular country. By understanding the country’s economic and business environment, insurance brokers can identify emerging industries and potential clients and assess the risks associated with providing insurance coverage in that country.



Based on this article, political risks significantly impact businesses and economies. The in-depth analysis of the various political risks and their potential consequences provides valuable insights into how companies can manage them effectively. 

I hope this article advances the understanding of political risks by highlighting the importance of political risk assessment and the need for proactive measures to mitigate potential risks.

The article emphasizes the need for businesses to adopt a more holistic approach to political risk management that considers stakeholder engagement, corporate social responsibility, and ethical considerations. By doing so, companies can protect themselves from potential losses and contribute to the stability and development of the societies in which they operate.

This information is presented by L&G Insurance BrokerThe Smart Insurance Broker.


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website: lngrisk.co.id

E-mail: customer.support@lngrisk.co.id

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